War On Drugs 3.5
March 2, 2018
War On Drugs 3.7
March 25, 2018
Show all

Part six of War on Drugs series, we’re now talking about the history of heroin, opium, laudanum, and the other good shit that comes from the humble poppy.

HOW TO LISTEN

If you’re seeing this message, it means you aren’t logged in as a subscriber. If want to listen to the premium episodes of the series, you’ll need to become one of our Bullshit Fighters and register for one of our premium accounts.

Show Notes:

  • Okay let’s talk about opium, aka the black spice, and its derivative, heroin.
  • Other common names for heroin include big H, horse, hell dust, and smack.
  • You can inject it, you can sniff it, snort it, or smoke it.
  • Some people mix heroin with crack cocaine, a practice called speedballing.
  • Which I thought was what you did in a Vegas hotel room where they charged you by the minute.
  • Heroin enters the brain quickly and binds to opioid receptors on cells located in lots of different areas, especially those involved in feelings of pain and pleasure and in controlling heart rate, sleeping, and breathing.
  • People who use heroin report feeling a “rush” (a surge of pleasure, or euphoria).
  • Unlike Cocaine, Heroin has a LOT of great pro-heroin songs.
  • Opium comes from the seed of the poppy plant Papaver somniferum.
  • Poppy seed have been found in the “Bat Cave”, in Spain, which is where Bruth Wenn first set up shop before moving to Gotham later in this career.
  • Anyway these poppy seeds have been carbon-14 dated to 4200 BCE.
  • The first known cultivation of opium poppies was in Mesopotamia as long ago as 3400 BCE.
  • Pretty much the first thing early humans did when they made it to the fertile crescent was start growing drugs.
  • Because let’s be honest.
  • When you’ve spent the last 50,000 years walking from Africa to Iraq, you deserve to get fucking high.
  • Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium.
  • The Sumerians called it the “joy plant”.
  • Do you know what the Sumerians SECOND favourite thing was apart from opium?
  • CONAN CLIP
  • Opium was sometimes used with hemlock to put people quickly and painlessly to death, but it was also used in medicine.
  • The Ebers Papyrus, c. 1500 BCE, describes a way to “stop a crying child” using grains of the poppy plant strained to a pulp.
  • Sponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery.
  • The Egyptians cultivated opium in famous poppy fields around 1300 BCE.
  • It was then traded to around the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece, Carthage, and Europe.
  • By 1100 BCE, opium was cultivated on Cyprus, where surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, and opium was cultivated, traded, and smoked.
  • Opium was also mentioned after the Persian conquest of Assyria and Babylonian lands in the 6th century BCE.
  • From the earliest times, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, and anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power.
  • “What do you mean you don’t believe I have magic? Smoke this pipe and tell me it isn’t magic.”
  • In Egypt, the use of opium was generally restricted to priests, magicians, and warriors,
  • They ascribed its invention to Thoth, the god often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, and if that isn’t a reason to get fucked up, I don’t know what it.
  • But by the way – how awesome is it to have a religion that says “sure, our gods gave us drugs because they love us and want us to feel good” – instead of this Judeo-Christian shit trying to make you feel guilty for wanting to rub one out on your sister’s tits.
  • The Egyptians also said opium was given by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.
  • He said “not now, honey, I’ve got a headache” and she said “shut the fuck up and take a hit of this, then get your clothes off and come rub one out on my tits.”
  • The Minoans had a “goddess of the narcotics”, who wore a crown of three opium poppies, around  1300 BCE
  • The Greek gods Hypnos (Sleep), Nyx (Night), and Thanatos (Death) were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding them.
  • Poppies also frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Asklepios, Pluto, Demeter, Aphrodite, and Kybele.
  • BTW, congrats to Pluto on becoming a planet again last week, mighty effort there Pluto.
  • In 460 B.C.  Hippocrates, “the father of medicine”, acknowledged its usefulness as a narcotic and styptic in treating internal diseases and diseases of women.
  • In 330 B.C.  Alexander the Great introduced opium to the people of Persia and India.
  • It was introduced to China by Arab traders in the 5th century CE.
  • The Chinese have been using opium for medicinal purposes since the 7th century.
  • 800 years later, in the mid-fifteenth century, one Chinese scholar wrote:
  • It is mainly used to treat masculinity, strengthen sperm, and regain vigour. It enhances the art of alchemists, sex and court ladies. Frequent use helps to cure the chronic diarrhea that causes the loss of energy … Its price equals that of gold.
  • Sounds like you need some opium, Ray.
  • But by the early 1700s, the Chinese emperor banned opium which he considered a poison.
  • But the British, and later the Americans, found sneaky ways to get it into the country, and made massive profits off it.
  • Because they were the original drug kingpins.
  • The British would bring it in from India.
  • opium was essentially the commodity which financed the British Raj in India.
  • There was a long history of opium use in India as well.
  • The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the builder of the Taj Mahal, drank opium with his wine and decorated the tomb of his beloved wife with poppies.
  • Another Mughal Emperor Humayun was an opium addict who spent little time with his wives or members of his harem.
  • After he consulted with some astrologers on the roof of his palace Delhi in 1556, he fell down descending some stairs at his library in Delhi and died from a head injury.
  • It is said he had consumed large amounts of opium.
  • By 1000 CE, Opium was cultivated, eaten, and drunk in India by all classes as a household remedy;
  • In the 1700s, when the British took control of India, they also took over the opium production.
  • At the time, the Portuguese found that they could import opium from India and sell it in China at a considerable profit.
  • By 1773 the British had become the leading suppliers of the Chinese market.
  • The British East India Company established a monopoly on opium cultivation in the Indian province of Bengal, where they developed a method of growing opium poppies cheaply and abundantly.
  • Other Western countries also joined in the trade, including the United States, which dealt in Turkish as well as Indian opium.
  • This lead to the famous Opium Wars of the 19th century.
  • The first Opium War in 1842 started when the Chinese started seizing British shipments of opium.
  • The short version of the backstory is that the Europeans were addicted to Chinese luxury goods as porcelain, silk, and tea.
  • But the Chinese didn’t care for European products.
  • Europeans had to pay for Chinese products with gold or silver.
  • And the British East India ships didn’t want to sail to China with gold and silver, it created an imbalance in their trading, so they filled the holds with opium from India.
  • The other thing they did was they began to grow their own tea in colonies under their control like Darjeeling and Ceylon where they could control prices and payment methods.
  • In the late 18th century, opium was the world’s largest traded commodity and Britain operated the world’s largest drug cartel.
  • By 1800, they were exporting 200,000 pounds of opium a year to China.
  • But the East India Company couldn’t officially carry the opium into China, because of the ban.
  • Also because China had sealed itself off from the world, permitting only limited trade under the Canton System, which only allowed maritime trade through a single port in Canton, and allowing no diplomatic contact.
  • The British PM Lord Palmerston, a good friend of the Duke of Wellington, so you know how much I dislike him already, demanded the Chinese allow free trade.
  • The Chinese refused.
  • They were worried about imperialism.
  • Rightly so, as it turned out.
  • So the British East India Company farmed out the last leg of the opium smuggling to what were known as “country traders”—i.e., private traders who were licensed by the company to take goods from India to China.
  • The country traders sold the opium to smugglers along the Chinese coast who smuggled it into the country.
  • The gold and silver the traders received from those sales were then turned over to the East India Company.
  • In China the company used the gold and silver it received to purchase goods that could be sold profitably in England.
  • So the British were essentially using drug mules to get around the laws.
  • The British justified their involvement in the opium trade by saying that they were only trying to meet demands for the drug in China.
  • A demand they helped create.
  • Just like Al Capone.
  • Hey man, I’m just a businessman meeting a need.
  • BTW, one of the world’s largest companies was started by selling smuggled opium.
  • Jardine Matheson.
  • Their turnover today is around $40 billion and they are into retail, real estate, financial services, shipping, construction, hotels, you name it.
  • But they got their start in China selling illegal opium brought in by the East India Company.
  • And if anyone is a fan of James Clavell’s NOBLE HOUSE series, as I was when I was 15, it’s loosely based on the Jardines.
  • Just before the outbreak of the first Opium War, a Chinese official wrote a letter to Queen Victoria asking her to back the fuck off with the drug business.
  • The letter was written by Lin Zexu, an important official in the Qing Dynasty, to Queen Victoria of Britain.
  • In one section he lays out the Chinese position pretty clearly:
    • We find that your country is distant from us about sixty or seventy thousand miles, that your foreign ships come hither striving the one with the other for our trade, and for the simple reason of their strong desire to reap a profit. Now, out of the wealth of our Inner Land, if we take a part to bestow upon foreigners from afar, it follows, that the immense wealth which the said foreigners amass, ought properly speaking to be portion of our own native Chinese people. By what principle of reason then, should these foreigners send in return a poisonous drug, which involves in destruction those very natives of China? Without meaning to say that the foreigners harbor such destructive intentions in their hearts, we yet positively assert that from their inordinate thirst after gain, they are perfectly careless about the injuries they inflict upon us! And such being the case, we should like to ask what has become of that conscience which heaven has implanted in the breasts of all men? We have heard that in your own country opium is prohibited with the utmost strictness and severity: — this is a strong proof that you know full well how hurtful it is to mankind. Since then you do not permit it to injure your own country, you ought not to have the injurious drug transferred to another country, and above all others, how much less to the Inner Land! Of the products which China exports to your foreign countries, there is not one which is not beneficial to mankind in some shape or other. There are those which serve for food, those which are useful, and those which are calculated for re-sale; but all are beneficial. Has China (we should like to ask) ever yet sent forth a noxious article from its soil? Not to speak of our tea and rhubarb, things which your foreign countries could not exist a single day without, if we of the Central Land were to grudge you what is beneficial, and not to compassionate your wants, then wherewithal could you foreigners manage to exist?
  • A pretty good description of imperialism!
  • Lin warned Victoria that they were bringing in a new law.
  • “Any foreigner or foreigners bringing opium to the Central Land, with design to sell the same, the principals shall most assuredly be decapitated, and the accessories strangled; and all property (found on board the same ship) shall be confiscated.”
  • When the Chinese started seizing the opium imports, the British used the Royal Navy to attack the Chinese.
  • Gunboat diplomacy, as we discussed in our Cold War economics episodes.
  • When the Chinese seized the opium coming into the country, it added up to some 20,000 chests (2.7 million pounds, about 95 percent British and 5 percent American).
  • The Chinese ended up giving in with the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.
  • Which is when Britain got “most favoured nation” status and control of Hong Kong “in perpetuity”.
  • They also forced China to pay an indemnity of $21 million (around $500 million in today’s money and large sum for a largely impoverished country and bankrupt dynasty) and minimal tariffs on imported goods.
  • This gets back to the idea of the “Open Door” policy with China that we talked about on the Cold War series.
  • But there was a second Opium War a 12 years later when the treaty came up for renegotiation.
  • The British demands included opening all of China to British merchant companies, legalising the opium trade, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties, suppression of piracy, regulation of the coolie trade (indentured labour – many Chinese laborers worked in British colonies such as Singapore, Jamaica, British Guiana (now Guyana), British Malaya, Trinidad and Tobago, British Honduras (now Belize)), permission for a British ambassador to reside in Beijing and for the English-language version of all treaties to take precedence over the Chinese language.
  • Reasonable demands, I’m sure.
  • When Chinese marines in Canton seized a cargo ship called the Arrow on suspicion of piracy, and it happened to be flying a British flag, all hell broke loose.
  • The British started bombing Canton.
  • Thousands were killed.
  • France, The USA, and Russia all got involved to support the British.
  • One of the great American fortunes was made during this period.
  • John Jacob Astor, the first American multi-millionare, got his start with fur trading, but then diversified into opium trading to China and England.
  • Another great American dynasty made its money in opium smuggling to China.
  • Warren Delano, FDR’s grand-father, made the family fortune that way.
  • Anyway, back to the second Opium War.
  • The Emperor and his entourage fled Beijing, the June 1858 Treaty of Tianjin was ratified by the emperor’s brother, Prince Gong, in the Convention of Beijing on 18 October 1860, bringing The Second Opium War to an end.
  • The British, French and the Russians were all granted a permanent diplomatic presence in Beijing.
  • The Chinese had to pay 8 million taels of silver to Britain and France.
  • one tael was about 37.80 grams of silver.
  • So 8 million taels would be around 302 million grams of silver
  • Or 302,000 kilograms.
  • Today’s value about $161 million USD.
  • Britain acquired Kowloon (next to Hong Kong).
  • The opium trade was legalized and Christians were granted full civil rights, including the right to own property, and the right to evangelize.
  • So the opium problem in China started with the British.
  • At the start of the First Opium War, future British PM William Gladstone criticized it as “a war more unjust in its origin, a war more calculated in its progress to cover this country with permanent disgrace.”
  • In the wake of China’s defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), the British took advantage of the other European powers’ scramble to carve up the country and forced the treaty on the weakened Chinese government.
  • That’s when they forced upon the Chinese the 99 year lease of the New Territories, which included Kowloon and Hong Kong.
  • Morphine, another opium product, was first synthesized in 1874 by C. R. Alder Wright, an English chemist working at St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School in London.
  • But nothing much happened with it until 23 years later when another chemist, Felix Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, independently came up with another way to synthesize it.
  • In 1895, Bayer marketed diacetylmorphine as an over-the-counter drug under the trademark name Heroin.
  • The head of Bayer’s research department reputedly coined the drug’s new name, “heroin,” based on the German heroisch, which means “heroic, strong”.
  • It was developed chiefly as a morphine substitute for cough suppressants that did not have morphine’s addictive side-effects.
  • Morphine at the time was a popular recreational drug, and Bayer wished to find a similar but non-addictive substitute to market.
  • Non-addictive…. right.
  • Another popular opium derivative in the 19th and 20th century was laudanum.
  • a 16th-century Swiss-German alchemist, Paracelsus, aka Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, was a pioneer in several aspects of the “medical revolution” of the Renaissance, discovered that the alkaloids in opium are far more soluble in alcohol than water.
  • He experimented with various opium concoctions, until he came across a specific tincture of opium that was good at reducing pain.
  • He called this preparation laudanum, derived from the Latin verb laudare, to praise
  • It was historically used to treat a variety of ailments, but its principal use was as an analgesic and cough suppressant.
  • Until the early 20th century, laudanum was sold without a prescription and was a constituent of many patent medicines.
  • Lots of Victorian women were prescribed the drug for relief of menstrual cramps and vague aches.
  • Nurses also spoon-fed laudanum to infants.
  • If you’ve ever watched Deadwood, it’s the drug Doc Cochran gives Alma Garrett.
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXXQIyDr3c0
  • During the Romantic and Victorian eras there was widespread use of laudanum in Europe and the United States.
  • Mary Todd Lincoln, for example, the wife of the USA president Abraham Lincoln, was a laudanum addict,
  • As was the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge who wrote his poem Kubla Khan in the middle of an opium-induced haze.
  • In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  • A stately pleasure-dome decree:
  • Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  • Through caverns measureless to man
  • Down to a sunless sea.
  • laudanum was initially a working class drug, because it was cheaper than a bottle of gin or wine, and because it was treated as a medication for legal purposes and not taxed as an alcoholic beverage.
  • So laudanum and heroin were prescribed by doctors in the early 20th century for a range of ailments, from mentrual cramps to a bad cough.
  • So it’s not hard to work out why there were a lot of addicts.
  • First, morphine was freely dispensed to the wounded during the Civil War.
  • It was estimated at the time that thousands of veterans were becoming addicted to the drug,’ and after the war began to pass on the “pleasures” of morphine to friends and relatives.
  • Second, opium smoking was quite popular among Chinese immigrants imported to help build the American rail- roads.
  • Thanks to the British!
  • As they settled in the Western states, the practice began to spread beyond their ranks.
  • Third, in 1898 heroin was introduced to the medical world as the cure for morphine addiction.
  • It wasn’t really a cure, though, and heroin soon caused even greater problems of addiction.
  • And of course, Fourth and most important, opium and cocaine were common ingredients in various patented medicines and sodas which were marketed widely throughout the country prior to the early 1900’s.
  • The actual number of addicts at the turn of the century is a subject of debate.
  • The first reported attempt to determine the extent of drug addiction in the United States was undertaken in 1878
  • In a report entitled “The Opium Habit in Michigan,” the author estimated that there were 7,763 drug addicts in the state.
  • Six years later, someone surveyed pharmacists in Iowa and estimated that there were 5,732 addicts in that state.
  • If these figures reflected a national pattern, there were approximately 180,000 to 250,000 addicts in the country at that time.
  • A Vermont study in 1900 indicated that approximately 3,300,000 doses of opium were sold monthly, enough to supply each Vermont adult.
  • The United States, under President Teddy Roosevelt, appointed it’s first United States Opium Commissioner on July 1, 1908.
  • His name was Hamilton Wright.
  • Wright said “Of all the nations of the world, the United States consumes most habit-forming drugs per capita.”
  • He called opium “the most pernicious drug known to humanity.”
  • He was a physician and pathologist who was most famous at the time for discovering the pathogen that was the cause of beri-beri, a nasty condition.
  • Unfortunately, it was later discovered that beriberi was caused by a vitamin deficiency, not a pathogen, but oh well, you can’t be right all of the time.
  • Wright lead the 13-nation conference of the International Opium Commission in 1909 in Shanghai, an American initiative.
  • It was officially something the Americans wanted to do to tackle the opium trade.
  • In reality though, the new President, Taft, saw the Opium Commission as a way of getting into China’s good books.
  • If the U.S. would join forces with China in combating their opium problem, then they might be able to get more trade agreements with them.
  • Remember the Open Door policy from our Cold War series.
  • American traders claimed that an opium-free China would be a good market for American goods.
  • And preventing the opium trade to China wasn’t really going to hurt the Americans because it wasn’t a huge business for them.
  • But it *would* hurt some of their competitors, so that’s good.
  • So this all lead to the signing of The International Opium Convention in 1912.
  • It was the first international drug control treaty.
  • Oh BTW, the American, Hamilton Wright?
  • He was fired soon after for alcohol abuse.
  • The treaty was signed by Germany, the United States, China, France,  Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Russia, Siam… and the United Kingdom,
  • Remember how the British had fought two wars to allow them to import opium into China?
  • Yeah well now, a mere 60 years later, they are against opium trade.
  • Why?
  • Well mostly because they got out of the business.
  • The trade was almost completely stopped by 1917 for a number of reasons,
  • One was that it was very unpopular with the general public, both in the UK and USA.
  • Another reason was that one effect of the Opium wars was to encourage opium-growing in China.
  • In the long run, they killed the trade, & turned China into an exporter of opium.
  • So while Britian was *in* the opium business, it fought two wars to protect it.
  • Once they were out of the business, they were happy to ban it and demonise the people who were still in the business.
  • Kind of like how the United States used import tariffs to protect its domestic manufacturers for 100 years but then, when it wanted to export its shit to other countries, started going on and on about “free trade” and how import tariffs were the work of the devil.
  • In 2010, the British PM David Cameron made a visit to China.
  • He was wearing a red poppy to honor Remembrance Day.
  • It was tasteless because of the connotation the poppy has in China, especially with the British head of state visiting.
  • He was asked to remove it, and refused.
  • DBAC.
  • The treaty siad that “The contracting Powers shall use their best endeavours to control, or to cause to be controlled, all persons manufacturing, importing, selling, distributing, and exporting morphine, cocaine, and their respective salts, as well as the buildings in which these persons carry such an industry or trade.”
  • It went into force globally in 1919 when it was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles after WWI.
  • It is not a coincidence that 20 years after the opium trade stopped, the British more or less packed up its bags and left India.
  • India was no longer a paying proposition.
  • But the primary objective of the convention was to introduce restrictions on exports – not imposing prohibition or criminalising the use and cultivation of opium, coca, and cannabis.
  • This explains the withdrawal of the United States, who were gravitating towards prohibitionist approaches
  • In the era of Prohibition, once the religious puritans had banned alcohol, they set out to to eradicate all stimulants.
  • Including tobacco and caffeine.
  • The Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act was a 1922  act of the 67th United States Congress.
  • It is also often referred to as the Jones-Miller Act.
  • It led to the establishing of the Federal Narcotics Control Board (FNCB) to tightly oversee the import and export primarily of opiates, but also other psychoactive drugs like coca.
  • The control board were created to better control what America was exporting from its territories to others as well as what was being brought in, to ban all recreational consumption and to control the quality of what was being used for medical purposes.
  • Of course it didn’t stop the drug users.
  • The Baltimore Sun in 1924 quoted Commander Hobson, who we talked about during the Prohibition episode, as saying that more than 1,000,000 Americans were addicted to heroin.
  • And that many of them were young boys and girls of a “tender age”.
  • He said the average age of a heroin addict was 22.
  • And claimed that 75% of all serious crimes by youthful offenders were committed under the influence of heroin or other drugs.
  • A few years earlier, nearly all of the criminals were, according to Hobson, under the influence of alcohol.
  • Now he’s saying its heroin.
  • He referred to the heroin users as the “snow gang”.
  • As he turned 50 Hobson found himself unemployed, Prohibition was in full swing, so bitching about alcohol wasn’t a job any more, and he was in search of a new “greatest evil”.
  • Heroin was the obvious choice.
  • Hobson was a prolific author on this subject, writing the books Narcotic Peril (1925), The Modern Pirates-Exterminate Them (1931) and Drug Addiction: A Malignant Racial Cancer (1933), speaking on radio programs and in front of civic groups, founding the International Narcotic Education Association and lobbying his former Congressional colleagues in favor of anti-drug laws.
  • He re-used a lot of his fear mongering rhetoric from his Prohibition speeches and just changed “alcohol” to “heroin”.
  • BTW The best man at his wedding was Nikola Tesla.
  • Modern studies suggest that by 1924 approximately 200,000 individuals in the United States were addicted to heroin.
  • Less than 1% of the population.
  • also in 1924, the New York deputy police commissioner reported that 94 percent of those addicted to drugs arrested for criminal activity were using heroin.
  • The head physician at Sing Sing prison in 1924 claimed that 95% of the men in his prison were heroin addicts.
  • But here’s the thing.
  • Banning drugs didn’t make people stop using them.
  • As they found with alcohol, if you try to ban it, people will find alternative ways to get their hands on it.
  • Illegal ways.
  • Because people want stimulants.
  • They want to relax.
  • They want to escape from the drudgery of life.
  • And of course, where there is a market, there will be people who are ready to supply that market.
  • And the sale of heroin, along with cocaine and alcohol, ended up in the hands of organised crime.
  • Instead of addressing the root of the problem – the desire people have to seek chemical stimulation or relaxation – the government just tried to remove the SYMPTOM of the problem.
  • And that never works.
  • It’s like telling kids not to masturbate.
  • Have you ever heard of the Rat Park experiment?
  • conducted in the late 1970s (and published in 1981) by Canadian psychologist Bruce K. Alexander
  • Alexander’s hypothesis was that drugs do not cause addiction, and that the apparent addiction to opiate drugs commonly observed in laboratory rats exposed to them is attributable to their living conditions, and not to any addictive property of the drug itself.
  • To test his hypothesis, Alexander built Rat Park, a large housing colony, 200 times the floor area of a standard laboratory cage.
  • There were 16–20 rats of both sexes in residence, food, balls and wheels for play, and enough space for mating.
  • In Rat Park, the rats could drink a fluid from one of two drop dispensers, which automatically recorded how much each rat drank.
  • One dispenser contained a morphine solution and the other plain tap water.
  • One group of rats was placed in tiny cages.
  • They tended to choose the morphine solution.
  • The rats in the nice roomy park, chose the water.
  • When the rats who were in the tiny cages were later placed in the nice park, they went back to drinking the plain tap water.
  • He also noted that the rats who were previously using the morphine, didn’t show many signs of addiction afterwards.
  • Which raises questions about the nature of addiction and it’s relationship to living conditions.
  • All of which brings us back to Harry Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics.
  • As we mentioned in an earlier episode, in 1930 Anslinger was made the head of the new department, thanks to his father in law who was the Treasury Secretary at the time.
  • His original brief was to police the laws against using cocaine and heroin.

Theme music: Holy Deep by The Passion HiFi

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *